Thursday, 30 March 2017
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[Policy Forum] A roadmap for rapid decarbonization

Added: 26.03.2017 8:26 | 0 views | 0 comments

Although the Paris Agreement's goals (1) are aligned with science (2) and can, in principle, be technically and economically achieved (3), alarming inconsistencies remain between science-based targets and national commitments. Despite progress during the 2016 Marrakech climate negotiations, long-term goals can be trumped by political short-termism. Following the Agreement, which became international law earlier than expected, several countries published mid-century decarbonization strategies, with more due soon. Model-based decarbonization assessments (4) and scenarios often struggle to capture transformative change and the dynamics associated with it: disruption, innovation, and nonlinear change in human behavior. For example, in just 2 years, China's coal use swung from 3.7% growth in 2013 to a decline of 3.7% in 2015 (5). To harness these dynamics and to calibrate for short-term realpolitik, we propose framing the decarbonization challenge in terms of a global decadal roadmap based on a simple heuristic—a “carbon law”—of halving gross anthropogenic carbon-dioxide (CO2) emissions every decade. Complemented by immediately instigated, scalable carbon removal and efforts to ramp down land-use CO2 emissions, this can lead to net-zero emissions around mid-century, a path necessary to limit warming to well below 2°C. Authors: Johan Rockström, Owen Gaffney, Joeri Rogelj, Malte Meinshausen, Nebojsa Nakicenovic, Hans Joachim Schellnhuber

[Report] Dengue diversity across spatial and temporal scales: Local structure and the effect of host population size

Added: 26.03.2017 8:26 | 0 views | 0 comments

A fundamental mystery for dengue and other infectious pathogens is how observed patterns of cases relate to actual chains of individual transmission events. These pathways are intimately tied to the mechanisms by which strains interact and compete across spatial scales. Phylogeographic methods have been used to characterize pathogen dispersal at global and regional scales but have yielded few insights into the local spatiotemporal structure of endemic transmission. Using geolocated genotype (800 cases) and serotype (17,291 cases) data, we show that in Bangkok, Thailand, 60% of dengue cases living <200 meters apart come from the same transmission chain, as opposed to 3% of cases separated by 1 to 5 kilometers. At distances <200 meters from a case (encompassing an average of 1300 people in Bangkok), the effective number of chains is 1.7. This number rises by a factor of 7 for each 10-fold increase in the population of the “enclosed” region. This trend is observed regardless of whether population density or area increases, though increases in density over 7000 people per square kilometer do not lead to additional chains. Within Thailand these chains quickly mix, and by the next dengue season viral lineages are no longer highly spatially structured within the country. In contrast, viral flow to neighboring countries is limited. These findings are consistent with local, density-dependent transmission and implicate densely populated communities as key sources of viral diversity, with home location the focal point of transmission. These findings have important implications for targeted vector control and active surveillance. Authors: Henrik Salje, Justin Lessler, Irina Maljkovic Berry, Melanie C. Melendrez, Timothy Endy, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Atchareeya A-Nuegoonpipat, Sumalee Chanama, Somchai Sangkijporn, Chonticha Klungthong, Butsaya Thaisomboonsuk, Ananda Nisalak, Robert V. Gibbons, Sopon Iamsirithaworn, Louis R. Macareo, In-Kyu Yoon, Areerat Sangarsang, Richard G. Jarman, Derek A. T. Cummings

[Report] Lysosomal cholesterol activates mTORC1 via an SLC38A9–Niemann-Pick C1 signaling complex

Added: 26.03.2017 8:26 | 0 views | 0 comments

The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) protein kinase is a master growth regulator that becomes activated at the lysosome in response to nutrient cues. Here, we identify cholesterol, an essential building block for cellular growth, as a nutrient input that drives mTORC1 recruitment and activation at the lysosomal surface. The lysosomal transmembrane protein, SLC38A9, is required for mTORC1 activation by cholesterol through conserved cholesterol-responsive motifs. Moreover, SLC38A9 enables mTORC1 activation by cholesterol independently from its arginine-sensing function. Conversely, the Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) protein, which regulates cholesterol export from the lysosome, binds to SLC38A9 and inhibits mTORC1 signaling through its sterol transport function. Thus, lysosomal cholesterol drives mTORC1 activation and growth signaling through the SLC38A9-NPC1 complex. Authors: Brian M. Castellano, Ashley M. Thelen, Ofer Moldavski, McKenna Feltes, Reini E. N. van der Welle, Laurel Mydock-McGrane, Xuntian Jiang, Robert J van Eijkeren, Oliver B. Davis, Sharon M. Louie, Rushika M. Perera, Douglas F. Covey, Daniel K. Nomura, Daniel S. Ory, Roberto Zoncu

[Report] A macrophage relay for long-distance signaling during postembryonic tissue remodeling

Added: 26.03.2017 8:26 | 0 views | 0 comments

Macrophages have diverse functions in immunity as well as in development and homeostasis. We identified a function for these cells in long-distance communication during postembryonic tissue remodeling. Ablation of macrophages in zebrafish prevented melanophores from coalescing into adult pigment stripes. Melanophore organization depends on signals provided by cells of the yellow xanthophore lineage via airinemes, long filamentous projections with vesicles at their tips. We show that airineme extension from originating cells, as well as vesicle deposition on target cells, depend on interactions with macrophages. These findings identify a role for macrophages in relaying long-range signals between nonimmune cells. This signaling modality may function in the remodeling and homeostasis of other tissues during normal development and disease. Authors: Dae Seok Eom, David M. Parichy

[Report] PI3K pathway regulates ER-dependent transcription in breast cancer through the epigenetic regulator KMT2D

Added: 26.03.2017 8:26 | 0 views | 0 comments

Activating mutations in PIK3CA, the gene encoding phosphoinositide-(3)-kinase α (PI3Kα), are frequently found in estrogen receptor (ER)–positive breast cancer. PI3Kα inhibitors, now in late-stage clinical development, elicit a robust compensatory increase in ER-dependent transcription that limits therapeutic efficacy. We investigated the chromatin-based mechanisms leading to the activation of ER upon PI3Kα inhibition. We found that PI3Kα inhibition mediates an open chromatin state at the ER target loci in breast cancer models and clinical samples. KMT2D, a histone H3 lysine 4 methyltransferase, is required for FOXA1, PBX1, and ER recruitment and activation. AKT binds and phosphorylates KMT2D, attenuating methyltransferase activity and ER function, whereas PI3Kα inhibition enhances KMT2D activity. These findings uncover a mechanism that controls the activation of ER by the posttranslational modification of epigenetic regulators, providing a rationale for epigenetic therapy in ER-positive breast cancer. Authors: Eneda Toska, Hatice U. Osmanbeyoglu, Pau Castel, Carmen Chan, Ronald C. Hendrickson, Moshe Elkabets, Maura N. Dickler, Maurizio Scaltriti, Christina S. Leslie, Scott A. Armstrong, José Baselga

Watch Out for These Tax Scams -- Even If You Already Filed Your Return

Added: 26.03.2017 0:01 | 0 views | 0 comments

There are some tax scams that target victims after they've filed their returns.

From: feeds.foxbusiness.com

Calif. upholds Obama emissions rules, setting up clash with EPA over mpg targets

Added: 24.03.2017 22:00 | 1 views | 0 comments

California approved light-vehicle pollution targets that the Trump administration has put on hold, setting up a potential face-off between federal and state regulators over emissions rules that could be expensive for automakers and a headache for...

Hopeful combo: World economy grows, carbon emissions stay flat

Added: 24.03.2017 18:08 | 1 views | 0 comments


Recommended: Climate change: Is your opinion informed by science? No sooner had the IEA trumpeted its latest findings on CO2 emissions last week than it came up with a new study warning that meeting the 2 degree target will take “an energy transition of exceptional depth, scope and speed” unlike anything we have ever seen. Flattening energy-related emissions (which make up two-thirds of all human-generated greenhouse gases) is “very, very good news,” says Laura Cozzi, an IEA official, because they have leveled out even as the world economy grew by 3.1 percent.

LEGO Classic Medium Creative Brick Box for $25 + pickup at Walmart

Added: 24.03.2017 12:44 | 0 views | 0 comments

Walmart offers the LEGO Classic Medium Creative Brick Box, model no. 10696, for $24.99. Choose in-store pickup to dodge the $5.99 shipping fee. (Target charges the same via pickup, as does Amazon with free Prime shipping.) That's the lowest price we could find by $6, although we saw it for $4 less in December. This set includes the storage box and 484 pieces in 35 colors.

Fighting malaria through mathematical analysis of parasite's metabolism

Added: 23.03.2017 18:14 | 0 views | 0 comments

A new mathematical model, based on the deadliest malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, could help develop antimalarials by identifying key metabolic targets, according to a new study.

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